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its services and programs to individuals with disabilities as mandated by the ADA. 

Research Abstract

Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is defined as a state of nociceptive sensitization caused by exposure to opioids. The condition is characterized by a paradoxical response whereby a patient receiving opioids for the treatment of pain could actually become more sensitive to certain painful stimuli. 


The type of pain experienced might be the same as the underlying pain or might be different from the original underlying pain. OIH appears to be a distinct, definable, and characteristic phenomenon that could explain loss of opioid efficacy in some patients.

Opioid Induced Hyperalgesia (OIH)
(Why we feel more pain with Opiates)

Author Information

Pain Physician. 2011 Mar-Apr;14(2):145-61.
Lee M1, Silverman SMHansen HPatel VBManchikanti L.

Suboxone/Subutex Hyperalgesia

Does OIH apply to Suboxone/Subutex use? 

Research Abstract

Research findings suggest buprenorphine (Suboxone/Subutex can eventually lead to similar hyperalgesic (OIH) effects of a full opioid agonist and thus “it may be best to wean patients off of opioids altogether rather than to continue them on buprenorphine long term,” researchers stated.

Author Information

Tori Rodriguez, MA, LPC

Addiction is a complex illness.

Why Treatment Is Needed

Is Alcoholism a Disease & Can It Be Cured?

Research Abstract

Author Information

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)

Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide (Third Edition)

Last Updated January 2018

It is characterized by intense and, at times, uncontrollable drug craving, along with compulsive drug seeking and use that persist even in the face of devastating consequences.

Addiction affects multiple brain circuits, including those involved in reward and motivation, learning and memory, and inhibitory control over behavior. That is why addiction is a brain disease. 

Because drug-addicted individuals may be uncertain about entering treatment, taking advantage of available services the moment people are ready for treatment is critical. Potential patients can be lost if treatment is not immediately available or readily accessible. As with other chronic diseases, the earlier treatment is offered in the disease process, the greater the likelihood of positive outcomes.

Research Abstract

There’s a lot of confusion about alcoholism and exactly how it affects those who are struggling with it. Some people propose that it is a lifestyle choice, and that stopping drinking is simply a matter of deciding to do so. However, those who understand alcoholism better, including the researchers and treatment professionals who deal with it every day, know that there is much more to it than that.

Alcoholism is a type of substance addiction. As defined by the American Society of Addiction Medicine, this means alcoholism, like other addictions, is a chronic disease affecting the reward, memory, and motivation systems of the brain. This, in turn, leads to dysfunction in physical, mental, emotional, social, and spiritual manifestations for individuals who are struggling with it. In addition, as with other chronic illnesses, there is no cure for alcoholism; however, there is treatment available that can help individuals manage the condition.

Author Information

American Society of Addiction Medicine

https://www.asam.org